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NASA Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Informational Meeting Presentation (continued)

Presented: March 27, 2012

The entire NASA EIS Informational Meeting Presentation (PDF) is available for download. The content of the slides in that presentation is included here in an accessible format.

This page includes the second part of the presentation covering remedial technologies. The first part of this presentation describes the EIS Process.

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NASA’s Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) – Remedial Technologies

Bravo Test Stand #2 Two workers using shovels to remove soil around the base of an oak tree to protect the tree roots The interior of the Groundwater Extraction Treatment System building at SSFL Native American pictograph at the Burro Flats site Coca Test Stands #1 on the right and #4 on the left
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Remedial Technology Selection and Evaluation Phases

  • Phase 1 – Remedial technology feasibility screening evaluation used to select the technologies
  • Phase 2 – National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) evaluation of remedial technologies and their potential environmental impacts
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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What is the process for selecting remedial technologies to evaluate in the EIS?

  • Step 1 – Develop a “universe” of technologies that can be used for site remediation
  • Step 2 – Evaluate the contaminants requiring remediation and select applicable technologies from the “universe” list
  • Step 3 – Evaluate the following for each technology selected in Step 2
    • Effectiveness
    • Implementability
    • Cost-effectiveness
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Step 1 – Technology Universe Sources

  • Engineering judgment and past experience at other facilities including NASA sites
  • Public input during scoping
  • Literature Search
    • Clu-in Website and Webinars
    • Federal Roundtable
    • Academia
  • Boeing Site-specific Experience/Evaluations
  • Ongoing Department of Energy Treatability Study Evaluations
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Step 2 – Soil Technology Screen

Primary Contaminants

  • Organics
    • VOCs (TCE)
    • SVOCs (including PAHs)
    • TPH
    • PCBs
    • Dioxins
    • Energetics
  • Inorganic
    • Metals

Technologies Considered

  • Organic / Inorganic Contaminants
    • Excavation & Disposal
    • Excavation, Onsite Landfilling, and Encapsulation
    • Phytoremediation
    • Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)
    • Institutional Controls
  • Organic Contaminants
    • Soil Vapor Extraction (VOCs)
    • Ex-situ Treatment
      • Landfarming
      • Thermal Desorption
    • In-situ Treatment
      • Soil Mixing
      • Oxidation / Reduction
      • Biological Treatment
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Step 2 – Groundwater Technology Screen

Primary Contaminants

  • Organics
    • VOCs
  • Inorganic
    • Metals

Technologies Considered

  • Organic / Inorganic Contaminants
    • Pump & Treat
    • Iron Particle Injection (primarily TCE)
    • MNA
    • Institutional Controls
  • Organics Contaminants
    • Vacuum Extraction (VOCs)
    • In-situ Treatment
      • Heat Driven Extraction
      • Oxidation / Reduction
      • Biological Treatment
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Step 3 – Effectiveness Technology Screen

  • Ability to destroy contamination?
  • Ability to reduce contamination to a non-toxic byproduct?
  • Ability to reduce mobility of contamination?
  • How long will the technology have to be implemented?
  • Bedrock Constraints
    • Ability to reach contamination?
    • Bedrock fracture network?
    • Ability to deliver remedial technology to low permeability rock matrix?
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Step 3 – Implementability Technology Screen

  • Utilities / infrastructure available to support technology?
  • Site-specific physical restrictions present (slopes / shallow bedrock / bedrock outcrops / depth to groundwater)?
  • Most technology applications are implementable for soil or shallow groundwater; however, bedrock remediation technologies that are implementable are limited due to complex fault and fracture networks.
  • Site-specific regulatory requirement considerations?
    • Air permitting
    • Water discharge permitting
    • Waste disposal
    • Other permits or notification
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Step 3 – Cost-effectiveness Technology Screen

  • Example Cost-effective Technologies
    • Enhanced bioremediation
    • In-situ chemical reduction
    • Phytoremediation
    • Landfarming
    • Monitored Natural Attenuation
  • Example Costly Technologies
    • Excavation and Disposal
    • Thermal Technologies
    • Pump and Treat (GETS)
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Soil Clean Up Technologies Selected for Evaluation

  • Excavation and Offsite Disposal
  • Excavation, Onsite Landfilling, and Encapsulation
  • Soil Vapor Extraction
  • Exsitu Treatment
    • Landfarming
    • Thermal Desorption (Rotary Dryer or similar technology)
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Soil Clean Up Technologies Selected for Evaluation (continued)

  • Insitu Treatment
    • Soil mixing (heat, ZVI, or oxidant)
    • Chemical Oxidation or Reduction (ZVI, H2O2, KMnO4)
    • Biological Treatment (Anaerobic or Aerobic)
  • Phytoremediation
  • Monitored Natural Attenuation
  • Institutional Controls
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Excavation and Disposal

This page shows an excavator removing contaminated soil and placing it into a dump truck.  A water truck is shown on the left side of the photo and is used for dust suppression.
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In-situ Treatment - Reduction

This page shows three photos of equipment used with in-situ reduction treatment.  The top left is a photo of the boom truck, nitrogen trailer, and trailer mounted with a tank holding a zero valent iron slurry, known as a ZVI.  The photo on the right shows the packer assembly and injection nozzle used to deliver the ZVI.  The bottom left photo is a detail of the direct push probe and the injection nozzle in which ZVI is delivered to the subsurface soils.
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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In-situ Reduction Animation

This slide included a video that shows a cut-away of soil with a vertical shaft or borehole. The packer assembly and injection nozzle are lowered into the borehole to the desired depth. The packers inflate to isolate the zone of injection. Nitrogen is injected through the nozzle causing openings or small fractures in the subsurface matrix where the chemicals can be delivered into the soils to treat the contamination.

NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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In-situ Treatment - Oxidation

This page shows three photos of equipment used with in-situ oxidation treatment.  The top left photo shows the tanker truck with the chemical used with in-situ oxidation, and the top right photo shows some of the equipment for injection of the chemical. The bottom photo shows the top of the well and the piping used to inject the chemicals into the subsurface soil.
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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In-situ Treatment - Soil Mixing

This page shows a large crane with a large diameter auger used to drill and mix chemicals into the subsurface.
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Groundwater Clean Up Technologies Selected for Evaluation

  • Pump and Treat
  • Vacuum Extraction
  • Insitu Treatment
    • Iron Particle Injection
    • Chemical Oxidation (H2O2, KMnO4)
    • Enhanced Bioremediation (Anaerobic or Aerobic)
  • Heat Driven Extraction
  • Monitored Natural Attenuation
  • Institutional Controls
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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Heat Driven Extraction with Vacuum Extraction

This page has two photos that show the equipment used in a heat driven extraction treatment project and the layout of the heaters and extraction points.  The left photo shows the layout of the heater and vapor extraction wells along with the associated piping used to transport the extracted vapors.  The second photo shows the treatment system used to cool the vapors and separate the contamination and water.
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Pump and Treat Groundwater

This page has three photos that show the tanks, air blowers (bottom left) and air stripping towers utilized to treat groundwater.  Groundwater is pumped to the tanks and then delivered to the top of the air stripping tower (top, left and right).
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Remedial Technology Selection

  • Multiple technologies may be implemented at same location (treatment train) on the basis of:
    • Contaminant mix present in soil or groundwater
    • Contaminant variation with depth (fate and transport of contaminants vary in subsurface)
    • VOCs migrating upward from groundwater into soil
    • Contaminant concentrations
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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NEPA Evaluation of Remedial Technologies

  • NEPA evaluation of remedial technologies will include remedial technology environmental impact analysis for each resource area:
    • Land Use
    • Site Infrastructure
    • Cultural Resources
    • Biological Resources
    • Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
    • Water Resources
    • Geologic and Paleontologic Resources
    • Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Waste
    • Health and Safety
    • Traffic and Transportation
    • Noise
    • Socioeconomics
    • Environmental Justice
NASA SSFL EIS – Mar 27, 2012
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This concludes this presentation.

Unless otherwise indicated, all images are provided by NASA.

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